St. Joan of Arc: The Inquisition (3)

After receiving a heavenly revelation, Joan liberated Orleans in 1429, and enthroned Charles VII as King of France. The next year, however, Joan was captured by the Burgundians and placed under the guardianship of John II of Luxemburg.

In July of the same year, Pierre Cauchon, the Bishop of Beauvais (and later the chief judge at Joan’s trial before the Inquisition), asked the Burgundians, in the name of the Prince of England, to grant him custody of Joan. Accordingly, on July 14, the Duke of Burgundy sold her to Cauchon for 10,000 pounds tournois.

Joan was accused of heresy and put on trial. The battle that Joan faced now was not against flesh and blood, but, as the Bible says, “against the principalities, against the powers, against the world rulers of this present darkness, against the spiritual hosts of wickedness in the heavenly places.” (Ephesians 6:12).

Joan jumping from the prison tower in Beaurevoir

Joan was held prisoner in a tower at the castle of Beaurevoir. While in captivity, she learned that the town of Compiègne was about to be taken by the English, who were planning to massacre all of the people there, including women and children. In a desperate attempt to help the people of Compiègne, she tried to escape from the 60-foot (about 18 meters) tower. Tying a cord to something (it is not clear how she obtained the cord, or what it was tied to), she attempted to lower herself from the window, but fell in the process. Despite the height, Joan survived, and was found lying unconscious at the bottom of the tower.

Joan had tried to escape several times before. Therefore, after this escape, she was put under even stricter surveillance. Then St. Catherine spoke to her, chiding her for her actions and telling her to ask for God’s forgiveness. Joan obeyed the order and was shriven by a priest. St. Catherine also told Joan that the English would fail to take Compiègne; and that is what happened.

At her trial, Joan said that, hearing the news of the planned massacre at Compiègne, she had felt that she “would rather be dead than live on after such a destruction of good people.” The prosecutors used this statement to accuse her of attempted suicide.

What is the value of 10,000 pounds tournois?

“The love of money is the root of all evils.”

(I Timothy 6:10)

The value of the monetary amount that Joan was sold for can be estimated using the price of her armor (as stated in the court records) as a reference point.

According to one website, the suit of armor that Charles VII provided for Joan cost 100 écus, equivalent to 2,500 sols or 125 pounds tournois.

The website continues, “In comparison, this suit of armor cost twice as much as the cheapest equipment used, yet cost eight time less than the most expensive. (Suit of Armor | Joan of Arc |

Simple calculation shows that the amount of money the Duke of Burgundy received from Cauchon was equivalent to 80 suits of armor of the kind worn by Joan, or ten suits of armor of the most expensive kind then made.

The Duke of Burgundy chose to acquire temporal wealth in this life. The gold he received was not only a payment for Joan. It must have been a payment from the devil, the god of this world (II Corinthians 4:4). it is he who controls the world’s wealth, betraying the God who teaches us to lay up treasure in heaven.

Bishop Pierre Cauchon (1371 – 18 December 1442), obsessed with power

The man responsible for Joan’s trial by the Inquisition and her execution by fire was Pierre Cauchon, Bishop of Beauvais. The English had offered Bp. Cauchon a post at the University of Paris, but in 1413 he was expelled from Paris for misconduct. Records indicate that Cauchon was a man of learning, full of ambition, and thoroughly determined to eliminate anyone who stood in his way.

The diocese which Bp. Cauchon administered, known as Beauvais, was located near the border between the English and French territories. On account of its location, it was often ravaged by warfare. Cauchon, who sided with the Duke of Burgundy, and became his strongest supporter, had been given the diocese of Beauvais as a reward. Not satisfied with his good fortune, Cauchon sought to use his ties to the Winchesters to acquire the diocese of Rouen as well. His attempt failed. However, this did not mean that he gave up.

The liberation of Orléans by the French army, inspired and led by Joan, was a threat to Beauvais. In fact, Cauchon was forced to flee from Beauvais. Cauchon understood with hatred that Joan’s success was his misfortune.

It was therefore an unexpected stroke of luck for him that Joan happened to be captured in his own diocese. The English wanted to brand Joan a witch and prove that Charles VII was not God’s chosen king. As judge, Cauchon could condemn Joan as a witch. Not only that, but if he eliminated Joan, an enemy of England, he could see the possibility of becoming Archbishop of Rouen, a long-held dream.

Cauchon chose vice over virtue

Cauchon was a learned clergyman, so he could not have been ignorant of what constituted sin in the eyes of God. However, his desire for wealth and status was insatiable. As it is written: “A greedy man’s eye is not satisfied with a portion, and mean injustice withers the soul” (Sirach 14:9).

Although he was a bishop, it is clear that he sought his own gratification rather than the glory of God. Cauchon was known, even before Jeanne’s trial, as a man who preferred bribery to the pursuit of truth. Cauchon bought Joan from the Duke of Burgundy and sold her to the English. If he had not given Joan to the English, she would not, at least, have been burned.

The Duke of Bedford eagerly awaited Joan’s death

Duke of Bedford by the British Library.

“ Churchman Peter Migietthe testifies that the English feared Joan of Arc more than a hundred soldiers, and that her very name was a source of terror to the foe.” (Fabré, Lucien. Joan of Arc. London: Odhams. 1955.)

Joan had many enemies. One of her most powerful enemies, the Duke of Bedford, seems to have recognized Joan’s charisma more than anyone else. He longed for Joan’s death. Because of Joan, the morale of the English army was lowered, anti-English sentiment was thickened, even in cities that were not hostile to the English, and the economy was hit hard.

Bedford’s faithful co-conspirator Cauchon investigated Joan’s background but was unable to make her out to be a witch. Bedford demanded that if the church could not burn Joan, it should give her to him. By now, her fate was already a foregone conclusion: she was to be burned.

Lord Bedford, who boasted a spectacular career

The miraculous nature of Joan’s military victories becomes apparent when one learns about her adversary, Lord Bedford, who was one of the most strategically adept military men of his time, whereas Joan was a peasant girl with no combat experience.

Bedford’s talents were not limited to warfare, but included politics as well: in 1415, and again from 1417-19, he was Lieutenant in charge of the English government, and together with Henry V, he sealed the Treaty of Troyes (1420), which recognized Henry’s claim to the throne of France. Bedford’s notable military victories included the Battle of Verneuil (1424), where, by defeating a Scots-French army, he ended Scottish involvement in France. During his lifetime, Bedford exercised at times the powers of a king, both in England and in France, and maintained the English hold on French territory.

After Joan had been burned, Bedford arranged for the coronation of Henry VI, which took place on December 16, 1431, at Notre Dame de Paris. However, the tide had turned against England. Bedford died in Rouen on September 14, 1435. A week later, the Treaty of Arras cemented the new Franco-Burgundian alliance against the English.

John, duke of Bedford – Wars of the Roses

Why did King Charles VII not try to save Joan?

Charles VII

King Charles VII did not seem eager to help Joan in her predicament. Historians are divided as to whether his indifference to Joan was due to political shrewdness or mere ingratitude.

Perhaps Charles feared the possibility of starting a new war by trying to get Joan back from England. Or perhaps he was told by Joan’s enemies, such as La Trémoille, that he should not spare her. The ransom that King Charles was willing to pay was not an unusual amount. Charles appears to have been unwilling to pay a large ransom.

Joan had told told Charles that she had only one year in which to help him. Perhaps Charles decided that Joan, being in captivity, had lost God’s favor and was not worth saving.

Charles demanded the truth about Joan’s trial

At the time of the rehabilitation trial, on the 15th of February, 1450, Charles VII declared that Joan of Arc’s enemies had destroyed her ‘against reason’—so ran the formula—‘and very cruelly,’ and that it was his, the King’s, intention ‘to obtain the truth regarding this affair.’

A cynical person might say that Charles’s demand for a rehabilitation trial was for the selfish purpose of proving that his claim to the throne was from God. On the other hand, it is said that Charles’s heart was broken when he heard that Joan had been executed. The indecisive and timid king must have had a sentimental side to his personality.

In 1453, having defeated almost all the English troops, Charles ended the Hundred Years’ War, and brought about a restoration of peace and order in France. Despite his accomplishments, however, he is most often remembered as the king who abandoned Joan of Arc.

Did Joan suffer from mental illness?

Regarding the mystical voice that inspired her to lead France to victory, her testimony is described as follows:

“Joan also said at her trial that her Voices were the Archangel Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret, and further stated that: “I saw them with my bodily eyes, as clearly as I see you; and when they departed I used to weep, and wish that they would take me with them” (Gower, Ronald Sutherland, Lord. Joan of Arc. London: J.C. 1893.)

Regarding Joan’s voices and visions, which are a subject of controversy, some psychiatrists have suggested that Joan may have had schizophrenia, a type of mental illness that involves auditory hallucinations. On the other hand, they also acknowledge that she had a high level of intelligence, memory, and clarity, despite her lack of education. Those who analyzed this information and wrote about her were doctors experienced in mental illness.

Medical writer Clifford Allen reports that schizophrenia usually begins to manifest itself around the age of 15. In Joan’s case, she heard voices at age 13, which means that her symptoms appeared early, but this is by no means impossible. (The Schizophrenia of Joan of Arc –

Were Joan’s tactics skilled?

On the other hand, the many strange anecdotes about her are difficult to dismiss as psychosis or mere coincidence. Suppose the cause of the voices was schizophrenia. In that case, Joan would be the only example in history of a schizophrenic teenager leading an army to victory.

At Joan’s rehabilitation trial, the knight Sir Thibauld d’Armagnac, Sire de Thermes and Bailli de Chartres, testified that “in commanding troops, giving orders, arranging battles, and inspiring soldiers, Joan of Arc was as competent in the art of war as the most accomplished captains.” It is hard to explain logically how Joan, with no combat experience, could have known how to fight in a way that would surprise an experienced soldier, especially when it came to artillery.

Death of a Blasphemous Soldier.

“You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain” (Exodus 20:7).

There is no clear answer as to the true meaning of the voices. What is clear is that Joan followed those voices and made accurate predictions in many battles. Many people testified at the trial; one interesting anecdote about her mysterious foreknowledge was told by a certain priest named Pasquerel.

Fr. Pasquerel told how, when Joan was on her way to enter a certain castle, a soldier used some coarse language as he saw the young Maid pass by — some rude remark. Turning to him, the Maid rebuked him for blaspheming, and added that he had denied his God at the very moment in which he would be summoned before his Judge, for that within an hour he would appear before the heavenly throne. The soldier was drowned within the hour. Such is the incident as told by Fr. Pasquerel.

From the testimony of Fr. Pasquerel, we learn of Joan’s foreknowledge, which we believe was taught to her by the voices. Sometimes, people can foresee tragedies involving family members and other people close to them. Joan, however, clearly foreknew of the death of a soldier who was a complete stranger.

It was not unusual at that time for soldiers to use the name of God lightly. Joan, however, was very strict in her criticism of such casual blasphemy. Many people today, like the soldier in this anecdote, probably do not realize the consequences of using God’s name so carelessly.

An anecdote from the Inquisition

Joan’s trial began on Monday, February 21, 1431. Lent, which is a time of fasting and prayer, often begins in March, but in 1431 it began on Wednesday, February 23. What kind of Lenten prayers did Joan offer, aligning her heart with the Passion of Jesus?

God was indeed protecting her. At the trial, Bishop Cauchon and the inquisitors laid traps to ensnare Joan. Soon they would discover that Joan was not easily trapped.

In the name of the devil

Jesus said to the Pharisees, “You are of your father the devil, and your will is to do your father’s desires. He was a murderer from the beginning, and has nothing to do with the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he lies, he speaks according to his own nature, for he is a liar and the father of lies” (John 8:44).

Once, during the trial, Cauchon witnessed Joan being counseled by La Fontaine (who served as her instructor) and two Dominican friars. Cauchon, upon seeing that, immediately realized that they intended to interfere with his trickery, and lost himself in anger. He shouted at them, “In the name of the devil, be silent!” Not only that, but he also took note of Joan’s appeal to the Pope and the Synod, had it struck from the record, and pretended that it had never happened. 

The two Dominican friars who had given Joan friendly advice were saved by the tact of their superior. But La Fontaine fled from Rouen before the trial was over.

The devil must have been at work through Cauchon. If the thoughtless utterance of God’s name is a denial of God, then giving orders in the name of the devil must be the most dreadful blasphemy of all.

Joan’s answer astonished the Inquisition officials

“Behold, I send you out as sheep in the midst of wolves; so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves” (Matthew 10:16).

Joan’s enemies, led by Cauchon, did everything possible to get her to testify against herself and admit to some kind of heresy; moreover, Joan was not even given a formal defense attorney. Nevertheless, her answers surprised the inquisitors, who were well-versed in all things theological.

For example, Cauchon asked Joan, “Do you think you are in God’s favor — in a state of grace?”

Joan replied, “If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God keep me so. If I knew I was not in God’s grace, I would be the saddest creature on earth.”

This answer astonished the inquisitors, for Cauchon’s question concealed a trick that a simple country girl like Joan could never have known.

Cochon’s question trap

“They set a net for my steps; my soul was bowed down. They dug a pit in my way, but they have fallen into it themselves.” (Psalm 57:6)

According to the Church’s teaching, for a person to affirm absolutely that he or she is, and shall remain, “in a state of grace” would be the sin of presumption. Thus, if Joan affirmed as much, the inquisitors could say that she was committing a sin, i.e., she was inclined to evil. On the other hand, if she denied that she was in a state of grace, she would be admitting that she was an insufficiently repentant sinner. Either answer would mean that Joan was acting in a state of sin. In other words, they could have ruled that it was the devil, not God, who was leading her.

The Law of Moses and Joan’s male attire

A woman shall not wear anything that pertains to a man, nor shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whoever does these things is an abomination to the LORD your God. (Deuteronomy 22:5)

Cauchon was accusing Joan of heresy, using a litany of false evidence and charges that were completely contrary to her testimony. Fearing, perhaps, that the case against Joan was rather weak, and wanting to declare her a heretic at any cost, he accused her of wearing men’s clothes, citing the Law of Moses in Deuteronomy 22:5.

Not only that, Joan’s enemies had recourse to horrific machinations in order to get her to sign a statement to the effect that she had never had any visions or revelations, that she had lied about acting at God’s command, and that she was a blasphemer and a heretic.

The Inquisitors planned to torture her, on the pretext of thereby saving her soul. To strike fear into her heart, they showed her the instruments of torture, but she would not yield.

The records of Joan’s trial by the Inquisition and her posthumous restoration trial provide a glimpse of her simple and straightforward personality. There are also numerous anecdotes detailing the family, the voices, and the miracles attributed to Joan. (Unfortunately, we cannot present all of them here.) Many anecdotes demonstrate Joan’s holiness, as well as the fact that her holiness was never recognized by Cauchon and the inquisitors.

Blasphemy of Communion

One of the accusations made against Joan by her judges was that it was equivalent to blasphemy for a woman to receive holy communion while dressed in male attire.

However, it is not clear whether the law of Moses regarding male and female clothing is actually binding on the Christian conscience. To put it briefly, Jesus Christ, being God, used his divine authority to fulfill the ancient covenant with Moses, and to make a new Covenant. In so doing, he upheld all of the moral laws of Moses, but not the civil and ceremonial laws, which he rendered obsolete.

Ritual law considered outdated

The laws about clothing are usually considered by theologians to belong to the obsolete ceremonial laws. That is why the inquisitors accused Joan not merely of cross-dressing, but of receiving the Eucharist while so dressed. By bringing up the Eucharist, they were able to charge her with blasphemy.

Moreover, the passage in Deuteronomy about men’s attire is not well known, and would have been difficult to find without diligent searching. We can see clearly that Cauchon and the Inquisition took time and effort to relentlessly hunt down their prey.

Image: The Trial of Joan of Arc, by Louis Maurice Boutet de Monvel 


Fabré, Lucien. Joan of Arc. London: Odhams. 1955.

Gower, Ronald Sutherland, Lord. Joan of Arc. London: J.C. 1893.

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The Feast of the Visitation

The Feast of the Visitation commemorates the visit of the Blessed Virgin Mary to her cousin Elizabeth while both of them were pregnant (Mary with Jesus, and Elizabeth with John the Baptist). It is traditionally celebrated on July 2; in the Novus Ordo it is on May 31. There is a wealth of meaning in the events that took place during the Visitation. The Bible says:

 In those days Mary arose and went with haste into the hill country, to a city of Judah, and she entered the house of Zechariah and greeted Elizabeth. And when Elizabeth heard the greeting of Mary, the babe leaped in her womb; and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit and she exclaimed with a loud cry, “Blessed are you among women, and blessed is the fruit of your womb! And why is this granted me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? For behold, when the voice of your greeting came to my ears, the babe in my womb leaped for joy. And blessed is she who believed that there would be a fulfillment of what was spoken to her from the Lord.” 

–          Luke 1:39–45

The Joy of John the Baptist, who was an Unborn Child

As mentioned above, the child in Elizabeth’s belly was John the Baptist. As all the prophets of the Old Testament had done, John prophesied that the Messiah would come (John 1:19–28), and one day, when he saw Jesus coming toward him, John told the people, “This is the Messiah” (John 1:29–34). For this reason, John is known as the last prophet of the Old Testament.

According to the traditional interpretation, the unborn John, who was a prophet, danced for joy when he realized that Jesus, the unborn child in Mary’s womb, was the Messiah.

One of the best-known Catholic prayers, Ave Maria

The words that Elizabeth, filled with the Holy Spirit, said to Mary are part of the most fundamental Catholic prayer to the Blessed Virgin: the “Ave Maria,” or “Hail Mary.”

    Ave Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum.

    Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui Jesus.

    Sancta Maria, Mater Dei,

    Ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc, et in hora mortis nostrae.


    Hail Mary, full of grace,

    The Lord is with thee.

    Blessed art thou among women,

    And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.

    Holy Mary, Mother of God,

    Pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.

(The bolded portions were added in the 16th century.)

Ave Maria – Gregorian Chant – Chants of a Lifetime

The Gospels were written in Koine Greek. Koine Greek was the common language of the Roman Empire, and would have been used by Jews in public, and when talking to Gentiles. Elizabeth, however, probably greeted Mary in Aramaic, the native language of the Palestinian Jews at that time, and the language that they would probably have used among themselves in their homes.

In the following video, we can hear the Ave Maria, Schubert version.

Schubert: Ave Maria, ‘Ellens Gesang III’ D839
Friar Alessandro

Mary’s words: Magnigicat

Mary’s words to Elizabeth are found in Luke 1:46-55, and are called the Magnificat. The Magnificat is traditionally sung at Vespers (Evening Prayer), which is usually said at around the time of sunset. Here is a portion of it:

My soul magnifies the Lord,

and my spirit rejoices in God my Savior,

for he has regarded the low estate of his handmaiden.

For behold, henceforth all generations will call me blessed;

for he who is mighty has done great things for me,

and holy is his name.”

–          Luke 1:46–49.

Magnificat chanted by the Monks of Fontgombault Abbey-Lucas Orsot

The Canticle of Zechariah

After the Canticle of Mary at Vespers, the Canticle of Simeon (Luke 2:29–32) is sung at Compline (the prayers said before bedtime); then, around sunrise, the Canticle of Zechariah (Luke 1:68–79) is sung at Lauds (Morning Prayer). The following is a portion of it:

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel,

for he has visited and redeemed his people,

and has raised up a horn of salvation for us

in the house of his servant David,

as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets from of old,

that we should be saved from our enemies,

and from the hand of all who hate us;

–          Luke 1:68–71.

Benedictus (Canticle of Zechariah, Solemn Psalm Tone 1f

Traditional Irish Marian Hymn from an old book

July 2 this year was a Sunday, but the parish priest, in his homily at Mass, did not speak specifically about Mary’s visit to Elizabeth. This is not surprising, since most parish priests preach according to the Novus Ordo calendar. Even so, I felt somewhat sad that there was nothing said about the traditional calendar, even though it was a Feast Day of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

After Mass, as usual, I stopped by the small book corner in the church. The church’s book corner has a lot of used books that seem to have been left behind from bygone times, and you can borrow them at your leisure.

As I was pulling out a few books to borrow, I noticed, in an inconspicuous place, a book with a red spine and a picture of a medieval-style woman. I picked it up and took a closer look. The woman pictured on the spine was Saint Lucy—one of my patron saints! Intrigued, I opened the book, titled My Nameday—come for Dessert, by Helen McLoughlin.

The page I happened to open to was the page for July 2, The Visitation, with a recommended hymn. The hymn had a simple, rustic charm not found in modern music.

It makes me happy to think that God introduced this song and prayer to me through my Patron Saint, on one of Mary’s Feast Days.

Oh Mary of Graces, a quiet prayer melody

The hymn was originally a traditional Irish Gaelic folk song. The traditional Irish singing style was a cappella, with no instrumental accompaniment, and the song was sung with eyes closed as the story was told and sung.

This short but beautiful song was translated from Gaelic into English and is called “Oh Mary of Graces.” The quiet melody of the original song has a haunting, prayerful melancholy. My impression of this piece was that someone who had suffered a tragedy was praying to the Virgin. At the same time, one can feel in it the strength of a person who, instead of lamenting his own misfortune, tries to overcome it through prayer.

Although not sung in traditional Gaelic, Jonas Eklund’s video fits the mood of the song perfectly. The girl sings in a clear voice at a relaxed tempo, accompanied by a simple guitar accompaniment.

O Mary of Graces- Jonas Eklund

I pray that this beautiful prayer and hymn to the Blessed Virgin will not be forgotten, but will be passed on to future generations.

Source: McLoughlin, Helen. My Nameday–Come for Dessert. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1962.

Image: The Visitation 1433-1434 Fra Angelico

St. Joan of Arc: Prelude to Tragedy (2)

Even my bosom friend in whom I trusted,
who ate of my bread, has lifted his heel against me.

-Psalm 41:9.

The common people worshipped Joan and were intoxicated by the victory and peace she brought. In contrast to such enthusiastic people, some of the French nobles and military commanders were jealous of Joan. Joan’s real enemies were among her allies, as Psalm 41:9 says.

The Gift of the Red Dress, and the Prediction

Near Châlons, on her way to Reims, Joan met with some friends who had arrived from the village of Domrémy. After spending a pleasant time with them, Joan was sent a red dress. Then she said something that seemed to foreshadow the tragic fate that awaited her; she told her two old friends that her only fear for the future was betrayal. (See: Gower, Ronald Sutherland, Lord, Joan of Arc. 1893.)

Was Joan simply telling her friends about her vague fears? Or was she receiving some kind of warning from God? Perhaps coincidentally, the red color of the dress that was sent to her is the liturgical color of a martyr. It seems as if it symbolized her death, as she followed God’s guidance to the end, and was burned.
In any case, this little episode foreshadowed the tragedy that was to take place in Compiègne.

July 17, 1429: The Coronation of the King. Divine Prophecy is Fulfilled

The will of God, as Joan had told it to the king, had been fulfilled. Charles VII was finally crowned king.

The king entered the cathedral of Reims with the Maid of Orléans at his right hand. He was anointed and made King of France with the holy oil of the old abbey church of Saint-Rémy. Joan is said to have carried a banner and stood by the king’s side during the coronation.

IV. Le sacre de Charles VII: V. “Te deum”

It was not a tradition at a coronation ceremony for someone to hold a banner at the king’s side. The king, by allowing this breach of protocol, made it clear that he was still grateful for Joan’s achievement.

After the coronation, Joan is known to have knelt down, embraced the king’s feet, and proclaimed the following:

“Noble King, now is accomplished the pleasure of God, who willed that I should raise the siege of Orleans and should bring you to this city of Reims to receive your holy coronation, thus showing that you are the true King, him to whom the throne of France must belong.”

It is said that upon hearing these words, all those present (except the king) wept. From Joan’s words, we understand that she had no arrogance, and did not take credit for the king’s glory.

Joan’s wish for a place of eternal rest

“When I die, I should wish to be buried here among these good and devout people,”
she said. “I know not—it will come when God pleases; but how I would that God would allow me to return to my home, to my sister and my brothers! For how glad would they be to see me back again! At any rate,’’ she added, ‘‘I have done what my Saviour commanded me to do.” (Gower, Ronald Sutherland, Lord, Joan of Arc. 1893.)

The coronation was a success. And yet, in spite of all the pomp and circumstance, somehow she left the archbishop with words that sounded as if she had forebodings of her future.

Joan was speaking of her death and burial. At this time, she was still in her teens. At such an age, it seems unnatural for her to have been concerned with where she would be buried when she died. She went on to assert that the mission entrusted to her by God had been fulfilled.

Charles VII praised Joan’s achievements and made her, as well as her family, nobility, giving them a coat of arms and monetary rewards. According to Dr. Jeremy Adams, after the coronation, the king declared that Joan’s work was done and asked her to return to the countryside. Having accomplished her mission, she could have returned to her native village of Domrémy and lived a quiet life there, serving God as a nun. In fact, however, she chose a different path.

April 1430: Failure to Retake Paris

Joan believed that Paris had to be retaken to maintain the future security of France. But the people of Paris had already sworn allegiance to Henry VI of England. Fearing reprisals if the King of France took control of Paris, the people fortified the walled city’s defenses. Unfortunately, Joan’s troops were insufficient to attack a place with such strong walls and towers as Paris. The indecisive Charles VII finally sent more troops, and Joan launched an attack, but her army failed to retake Paris.

Joan was wounded in the thigh by a crossbow bolt, but remained on the battlefield. In the end, she had to retreat, against her will, but she protested that she would have won the battle if her troops had continued the attack.

Two Avengers—False Mouth, False Right Hand

Stretch forth thy hand from on high,
rescue me and deliver me from the many waters,
from the hand of aliens,
whose mouths speak lies,
and whose right hand is a right hand of falsehood.

-Psalm 144:7–8.

Joan’s failure to retake Paris delighted her enemies, who pretended to be her allies. Two enemies in particular, the Archbishop of Reims, and Georges de la Trémoille (c.1382 – 6 May 1446), influenced the king to put all the blame on Joan. As a result, the king authorized the Archbishop of Reims to conclude a truce with England, contrary to Joan’s wishes.

The Archbishop of Reims at this time, Regnault de Chartres (1380–1444), was the very bishop who had heard the ominous words of foreboding from Joan at the coronation. Joan would not have thought that he was an enemy. How did the archbishop feel when he heard Joan speaking about where she wanted to be buried after her death? No one knows. It is said, however, that later, when Joan was captured, the archbishop was overjoyed, saying that it was proof of God’s justice. He was also the one who brought the news of Joan’s capture to the people of Reims, telling them that Joan was proud and had incurred God’s wrath by trying to follow her own will rather than God’s.

The other main adversary of Joan was a nobleman named Georges de la Trémoille (c.1382 – 6 May 1446). He was distantly related to Gilles de Ré, a loyal follower of Joan who later became known as a murderer. La Trémoille, through his shrewdness, had a great influence on Charles VII. His cruelty can be seen in the fact that, merely for his personal financial gain and status, he kidnapped and drowned Pierre de Jacques, who had been one of Charles VII’s favorites.

He had done everything in his power to keep the king from going to Reims. He also thwarted Joan on various occasions, and when she wanted to attack Paris again, he prevented her from doing so. It is said that his influence was also responsible for the king’s failure to obtain Joan’s release when she was later captured.

Joan’s Dark Fate Spelled Out by Her Voices

Joan’s voices no longer gave her any clear commands as they once had done, but she continued to fight to save France.
In early April 1430, while Joan was in the town of Melun during Easter week, St. Catherine and St. Margaret spoke to her telling her that she would be taken prisoner before St. John’s Day (June 24), but not to fear. It is said that she asked of the saints that, when she was captured, she might die immediately. The Battle of Jargeau 12 Jun 1429 (

After this, Joan decided to go to the battle of Lagny-sur-Marne. Even the fear of possible capture did not dampen her burning desire to save France. Joan of Arc | Biography, Death, Accomplishments, & Facts | Britannica

April 1430: The Battle of Lagny-sur-Marne: The Beheaded Man

The Burgundians, on the side of the English, had assembled a large force at Arras to reinforce their defense of Paris. The Burgundian army was led by Franquet of Arras, who was heading for Lagny. However, on their way to Lagny, they sacked another city, alerting the French to the danger and allowing them to prepare for battle.

Thanks to the troops at Lagny, French reinforcements, and the efforts of Joan and her men, Franquet of Arras was captured, and his men were either killed or taken prisoner. Franquet was then supposed to have been exchanged for a prisoner of war that Joan wanted, but it turned out that that prisoner was already dead. Moreover, it was revealed at his trial that Franquet of Arras was guilty not only of plunder, but also of murder. Asked what to do with him, Joan told her men, “Do with this man as justice demands.” The Battle of Jargeau 12 Jun 1429 (

God has mercy on human sin.

Joan was not specific about the punishment that justice demanded. The punishment that Franquet received was beheading. Later, the beheading of Franquet would be a determining factor in Joan’s fate: the Inquisition held Joan responsible for it, and it was one of the reasons for her execution by fire. Was the execution of Franquet justified? Well, on the one hand, he was tried by a jury and found guilty of murder, and the penalty for murder, in those days, was death. On the other hand, as a prisoner of war, he was entitled to some rights, including, it could be argued (but this is a gray area), the right to be returned to his own nation, to be tried there by a jury of his fellow-countrymen.

The Bible says, “But God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us” (Romans 5:8).

We do not know how much responsibility Joan bore, in God’s eyes, for the beheading of Franquet. But if she had had compassion on him, as Christ had compassion on us sinners, Franquet would have had a chance to survive.

May 23, 1430: Joan captured at the siege of Compiègne

The Capture of Joan of Arc, ca. 1850 by Adolphe Alexandre Dillens

The final battle of Joan’s life was the siege of Compiègne on the Day of Pentecost. In theory, to engage in battle on a Sunday, let alone a major Holy Day such as Pentecost, was forbidden by the Peace and Truce of God, a set of rules which had been established throughout Europe, beginning in the 10th Century, to regulate and limit the conduct of warfare. By the 15th Century, however, the Peace and Truce of God was being ignored by pretty much everyone. (While researching this topic, I was surprised to learn that the spirit of secularism was already so widespread in the mid-fifteenth century.) Perhaps Joan did want her army to fight on the holy Feast of Pentecost; perhaps her army insisted on doing so in spite of her wishes. We will never know.

At any rate, Joan, with about 500–600 cavalry and infantry, attacked the Dukes of Burgundy. During the battle, Joan was dragged off her horse by an archer, and taken prisoner by the Burgundians. It is said that the English and Burgundians were more pleased with the capture of Joan than they were with the capture of 500 soldiers. (See: The campaigns of Joan of Arc, according to the Chronicles of Enguerrand de Monstrelet (

Once captured, Joan was placed under the guardianship of John II de Luxembourg (1392–1441). His aunt (also named Joan), known as the Demoiselle de Luxembourg, was sympathetic to Joan, and opposed selling her to the English. She threatened to cancel her nephew’s inheritance if he did so.

Joan sold to England

Her sympathy for Joan may have been due to the fact that she, like Joan, was very devout. Unfortunately for Joan, in 1430, the Demoiselle visited Avignon to pray at the tomb of her brother Pierre, and, while there, died.

The Demoiselle’s brother, Pierre de Luxembourg, who had been a Cardinal at Avignon until his death in 1387, was considered by some to be a saint (he was eventually beatified by Pope Clement VII in 1527).

John II, no longer worried about his inheritance, sold John to the English in exchange for a ransom. He ignored the terms of his aunt’s last will and testament, which stipulated that he would not sell Joan to the English in exchange for a ransom. John II had acquired a vast fortune. However, he never spent it, for he died the following year.

Joan had a series of fortunate moments in quick succession, up until the coronation of King Charles VII. After that, however, a dark shadow seems to have been cast over her life. Again and again, Joan found herself in situations where she should have been set free; again and again, she was betrayed.

Image: Joan in Reims Cathedral by Jules-Eugène Lenepveu

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The Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus

Happy Feast of the Sacred Heart!

The Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus is celebrated on the Friday following the Feast of Corpus Christi.

The feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus dates back to the 17th century, when the visionary and nun St. Margaret Mary Alacoque of France received a divine revelation. It is a relatively new feast in the 2000-year history of the Church, but after several stages of approval by the Vatican, it is now considered one of the most important feasts on the Church’s calendar.

Sacred Heart of Jesus: Flesh and Spirit

The Breviary is the book that contains the words (but not the chants) of the Divine Office, that is, a collection of Catholic prayers, psalms, and readings (from the Bible and other sources), arranged according to the Liturgical Year, and traditionally used daily by all priests and nuns in the Western Church. Of course, it is written in Latin. The traditional Latin Breviary has been translated into beautiful English and published by a certain liturgical foundation as the (unofficial) English version of the Breviary. That version contains a very clear and easy-to-understand commentary on the Sacred Heart of Jesus, based on Catholic theology. The following is a summary of that commentary:

When did devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus begin? – from the Breviary

There is no record of when devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus began, but there can be no doubt that it is an old tradition. It is clear that this devotion already existed in the early Church (at least in embryonic form). The following is a summary of the Breviary’s comments on the Sacred Heart:

For example, regarding the love of God, our Lord explained to Nicodemus that “God so loved the world that he gave his only Son” (John 3:16). The symbol of love is the heart.

Paul’s letters also mention God’s love and mercy.

“But God shows his love for us in that while we were yet sinners Christ died for us” (Romans 5:8).

Not only the love of Jesus, but also the wounds of his Passion began to be an object of meditation and devotion in the early Church. St. Paul writes:

“Henceforth let no man trouble me; for I bear on my body the marks of Jesus” (Galatians 6:17), traditionally interpreted as a reference to the Stigmata.

St. Augustine and St. John Chrysostom, both 4th century saints, compare the crucified Christ with Adam. They explain that just as Adam slept and Eve was taken from his side, so Christ crucified, “sleeping” in death, was pierced in the side by the spear, and blood and water flowed out, giving birth to the Church.

A Commentary on the Sacred Heart of Jesus

Our Lord said, “Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me; for I am gentle and lowly in heart, …” (Matthew 11:29). Our Lord’s use of the word “heart” shows us that the concept of Jesus’ Sacred Heart already existed in his own lifetime.

In Biblical usage, the heart symbolizes not only the emotions but also the whole inner or spiritual life of a human being. So, the heart of Jesus symbolizes his love, his mercy, his wisdom, and so on. But the Sacred Heart of Jesus is more than just a symbol.

The essence of Christianity is that, at a certain time, a little before the beginning of the First Century A.D., God, the Eternal Word, became a human being with a physical human body. That human being is named “Jesus,” and he is simultaneously God and man. To worship the humanity of Jesus is to worship the divinity of Jesus, who is God, because they are inextricably linked. Therefore, the Feast of the Sacred Heart of Jesus is a day on which we praise and worship God by praising and worshipping the physical heart of Jesus, the muscle in his chest which pumped the blood through his body. Thus far the summarized Breviary.

An interesting aspect of Christianity is that in addition to worshipping God the Spirit, it also worships the physical body of Jesus Christ. As far as I know, Christianity is the only religion that makes an actual body, a physical heart, the object of worship, while at the same time insisting on monotheism. The Sacred Heart of Jesus is a feast that is full of the mysteries of God, deeply related to the Trinity, which is incomprehensible to human beings.

As a side note, the word “heart” mentioned above refers to the physical heart, in both Greek and Hebrew. Furthermore, to better understand the worship of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, the physical heart, we need to know the Trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. I cannot explain the Trinity, so I will not do so here. If you are interested, please ask your parish priest.

The Sacred Heart of Jesus and the 12 Promises

Chanted Litany of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in Latin | Litaniae Sacri Cordis Iesu (English Captions)

Jesus made twelve promises to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque regarding those who have faith in his Sacred Heart. It is said that St. Margaret Mary, who spread devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus, instituted the Holy Hour. Also, on the first Friday of each month, she prostrated herself on the ground and prayed, sharing the sorrows of Christ. She also received communion every first Friday. Just as St. Margaret Mary received Communion every first Friday, the devotion of the Sacred Heart of Jesus consists of attending Mass on the first Friday of the month for nine consecutive months. Here are the twelve promises mentioned above:

1. I will give them all the graces necessary for their state in life.

2 I will give them peace in their families.

3 I will console them in all their troubles.

4. They shall find in my heart an assured refuge during life and especially at the hour of death.

5. I will pour abundant blessings on all their undertakings.

6. Sinners shall find in my heart the source and infinite ocean of mercy.

7. Tepid souls shall become fervent.

8. Fervent souls shall speedily rise to great perfection.

9. I will bless the homes in which the image of my Sacred Heart shall be exposed and honored.

10. I will give to priests the power to touch the most hardened hearts.

11. Those who propagate this devotion shall have their name written in my Heart and it shall never be effaced.

12. The all-powerful love of my Heart will grant to all those who shall receive Communion on the first Friday of nine consecutive months the grace of final repentance; they shall not die under my displeasure, nor without receiving the sacraments; my Heart shall be their assured refuge at that last hour.

12 Promises from the Sacred Heart of Jesus ( 

God’s Mercy on JFK for his devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus

American President John F. Kennedy is famous for his tragic death. However, few people know about the mercy of the Sacred Heart of Jesus at his deathbed. John F. Kennedy was the first Catholic President of the United States, but, as is clear from the details of his personal life, he was not a very devout Catholic. However, when he was still a young man, his mother made sure that he performed the devotion of the Nine First Fridays, the devotion of the Sacred Heart of Jesus. (12 Promises of the Sacred Heart of Jesus: Peace in Home and Life – YouTube)

On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was shot. He was rushed to a nearby hospital. At the hospital to which Kennedy was taken, it just so happened that a priest was there, preparing to visit another patient. That priest was able to administer the last rites to the dying Kennedy.

When Kennedy was brought to the hospital, “the president was unresponsive, had slow agonal respirations (gasping) and no palpable pulse or blood pressure” (Could We Save JFK Today? | MedPage Today). No one can say precisely when the soul leaves the body. However, I believe that Kennedy’s soul was still in his body when, by a strange coincidence, he was able to receive the last sacrament, as promised by the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Whenever I learn of such a story, I am reminded of the words Mother T. wrote down, “What is coincidence in the eyes of man is inevitability in the eyes of God.”

St. Margaret Mary: Jesus Hidden in the Eucharistic Bread

“Jesus is found in the Sacrament of the Eucharist, in which love keeps him tied like a victim, always ready to be sacrificed for the glory of his Father, and for our salvation. His life is totally hidden from the eyes of the world, which succeed in seeing only the poor and humble appearances of bread and wine. […] Jesus is always alone in the Blessed Sacrament. Try to never miss any Communion, lest we give great joy to our enemy the devil!”

–  St. Margaret Mary Alacoque (See: MIRACLES-Mystics panels (

The Eucharistic Bread cannot be described without the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The Eucharistic Bread is the Body of Jesus, and the heart is a central and essential part of that body. Without the heart, the body cannot live or function as a body. That is why symbolically, the heart can stand for the whole body.

There are many mystical feasts in June. Corpus Christi and the Feast of the Sacred Heart are among the most important of them. Whenever I celebrate these feasts, I feel very happy to be a Catholic.

Image: Two Angels with the Sacred Heart in Stained Glass

Source: The Anglican Breviary, Containing the Divine Office According to the General Usages of the Western Church, Put into English in Accordance with the Book of Common Prayer. New York, Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation, Inc. 1955.

Corpus Christi: The Holy Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ

Happy Feast of Corpus Christi!

In Catholicism, this day (the Second Sunday after Pentecost, or, more traditionally, the previous Thursday) is the Feast of Corpus Christi, the celebration of the Eucharistic Bread, the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ. In our local priest’s homily for Corpus Christi, he mentioned that there are two major differences between Catholics and mainstream Protestants, namely: the Pope, and the Eucharistic Bread. We Catholics believe that the Pope is the Vicar of Christ in the one and only Church created by God, and that the Eucharistic Bread, after having been consecrated by a priest, is the body of Jesus.

The feast of the Corpus Christi began with a revelation from God

Juliana of Liège (c. 1192—5 April 1258) was a 13th-century nun and mystic who, being an orphan, was placed in a convent when she was five years old. Life in the convent led Juliana to develop a special reverence for the Eucharist.

In 1208, our Lord appeared to Juliana and instructed her to petition for a new liturgical feast day for the celebration of the Eucharist. Juliana, however, did not immediately tell her superiors about the vision, but kept it a secret. Similar visions continued for the next 20 years, and the request for a new feast day was finally transmitted to the bishop of Liège by a priest who heard her confession. Juliana also sent a letter to the Dominicans and to the Bishop, requesting that the feast of the Eucharist be instituted.

Upon receiving Juliana’s letter, the bishop instituted the feast of the Eucharist in the diocese of Liège in 1246. A certain archdeacon in the diocese, Jacques Pantaléon, found this new feast to be very moving, and considered it a very important addition to the Church’s calendar.

In 1264, Jacques Pantaléon became Pope Urban IV, and that same year he instituted the feast of the Corpus Christi for the whole Latin rite Church.

Author of the Corpus Christi Liturgy: St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)

When the feast of Corpus Christi was instituted, Urban IV asked Thomas Aquinas to write and arrange the liturgy for the Divine Office and Mass of the new feast day. Adoro Te Devote, one of the hymns written by Thomas Aquinas for the occasion, was given a melody and continues to be sung at Masses on the feast of Corpus Christi to this day.

Adoro Te Devote, Sisters of Aquinas -Sisters of Aquinas

Adoro Te Devote

O Godhead hid, devoutly I adore Thee, Who truly art within the forms before me; To Thee my heart I bow with bended knee, As failing quite in contemplating Thee.

Sight, touch, and taste in Thee are each deceived; The ear alone most safely is believed: I believe all the Son of God has spoken, Than Truth’s own word there is no truer token.

God only on the Cross lay hid from view; But here lies hid at once the Manhood too: And I, in both professing my belief, Make the same prayer as the repentant thief.

Thy wounds, as Thomas saw, I do not see; Yet Thee confess my Lord and God to be: Make me believe Thee ever more and more; In Thee my hope, in Thee my love to store.

O thou Memorial of our Lord’s own dying! O Bread that living art and vivifying! Make ever Thou my soul on Thee to live; Ever a taste of Heavenly sweetness give.

O loving Pelican! O Jesu, Lord! Unclean I am, but cleanse me in Thy Blood; Of which a single drop, for sinners spilt, Is ransom for a world’s entire guilt.

Jesu! Whom for the present veil’d I see, What I so thirst for, O vouchsafe to me: That I may see Thy countenance unfolding, And may be blest Thy glory in beholding. Amen.

St. Thomas Aquinas, tr. E. Caswall.  (Source from EWTN)

The Mystery of Transubstantiation

In the Bible, Jesus speaks of the Eucharist, the “bread of life,” as His body and blood. For the apostles, Jesus’ words were at first incomprehensible. Only after His resurrection did they understand the meaning of His words.

Both the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church teach that the Eucharistic bread becomes the Body of Christ, but the Eastern Orthodox Church is content to leave the details of this great mystery unexplained. How, then, does the Western Church, the Catholic Church, explain the mystery of the Eucharistic Bread?

Eucharistic Bread, the Body of Jesus

Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.” (Matthew 26:26)

The Church teaches that, when the priest at Mass says, “This is my body,” speaking the words of Christ, it is Christ, the Word, who is speaking through the words of the priest. At that moment, the bread on the altar becomes the body, blood, soul, and divinity of Jesus Christ.

This mystery has been discussed by theologians using Aristotelian philosophy. It has been defined as “transubstantiation.” In order to understand transubstantiation, one must think in terms of the Aristotelian categories of “substance” and “accident.” Simply put, “substance” is the noun that says what a thing is, and “accidents” are the adjectives that describe that thing.

In the case of the altar bread, or “host,” one could say that, before consecration, it is “thin, white, round, bread-flavored bread.” The substance in this case is the noun “bread;” the accidents are the adjectives “thin, white, round, bread-flavored,” and whatever other adjectives one might use to describe the bread. “Transubstantiation” means that the substance changes, but not the accidents. So, after consecration, the host would be correctly described as “the thin, white, round, bread-flavored body of Christ.”

Thanks to this sacred mystery of transubstantiation, the Eucharistic bread we partake of at Mass is not a bloody piece of meat.

With the Bread of Life, we will never hunger.

Jesus said, “I am the bread of life; he who comes to me shall not hunger, and he who believes in me shall never thirst” (John 6:35).

When I knew very little about Christianity, one of the things that strongly attracted me to Catholicism among the many denominations was the Eucharistic Bread, one of the Catholic sacraments. When I saw the faithful receiving Holy Communion in Catholic churches, I was eager to have the Eucharist. I started attending Bible classes at the church in order to get baptized, and was really disappointed when I found out that it would take several months to prepare for baptism. I felt as if I had been left without food when I was hungry. Finally, after finishing the Bible classes, when I was baptized and received the holy Eucharistic bread, I felt as if my body and mind were filled with wonder.

Since then, I have not felt the hunger that I felt before my baptism, but during the pandemic, when the churches did not celebrate Mass for the general congregation, I began to feel the same hunger that I had felt before. To be honest, I was happy to attend Mass online, since it was so much easier and more convenient. Then, however, a hunger returned that is hard to explain in words. My faith in the Eucharistic Mysteries was not deep, at first; but when I began to feel that spiritual hunger, I realized for the first time how much the Eucharist had filled my body and soul.

Receiving the Precious Eucharistic Bread

Catholics emphasize the importance of the Mass and the Eucharist.

Padre Pio loved the Mass and Communion so much that he said, “It would be easier for the world to exist without the sun than without the Mass.” The example of Padre Pio indicates just how important the Eucharist is. Prolific Catholic authors Bob and Penny Lord wrote about him as follows:

“Padre Pio … had a lifelong love affair with Our Lord Jesus in the Eucharist. To him, the Eucharist was the center of all spiritual benefits. It was the life breath of the soul. … After his ordination, he took a long time for the Consecration of the Mass, to the point where parishioners complained about all the time he spent, in ecstasy, before the bread and wine as they became the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus.” (Saint Padre Pio – devoted to the Eucharist and Mary

Most of us will probably never experience Mass the way Padre Pio did, but his experience shows us that the Mass is a supernatural event of great magnitude, and not a mere human ceremony. Also, Pope St. Gregory the Great is said to have witnessed our Lord’s Passion while saying Mass, and there have been many Eucharistic miracles to show us clearly that the consecrated host is truly the body of Jesus (you can read about some of them here:

In his homily for Corpus Christi, my parish priest stressed the need for confession before receiving Holy Communion. With regard to the need for faith in the Sacrament, he said, “If you don’t believe, don’t receive.” Also, he recommended receiving the host on the tongue (as it has been done for centuries), and urged people, if they insisted on receiving in the hand, to please consume the host as soon as possible after receiving it. Finally, he advised us to remember to say a prayer of thanksgiving after communion.

After receiving Holy Communion, Padre Pio would give thanks and pray (in part) as follows:

“Help me to recognize You as Your disciples did at the Breaking of the Bread, so that the Eucharist Communion be the light which disperses darkness, the power which sustains me, the unique joy of my heart.” (Excerpt from Padre Pio prayed this prayer after receiving Holy Communion, Aleteia)

May your Eucharistic feast and week be filled with grace.

image: Eucharist, painting on the church altar

Saint Joan of Arc: The Maid of Orléans. (1)

Joan of Arc (c. 1412–1431), France’s national hero, was canonized by Benedict XV in 1920. Her feast day is May 30 (or May 31 in some places). You have probably heard of Joan and how she saved France, since her dramatic life has been made into several books and movies. Almost 600 years after she was captured and burned at the stake, Joan continues to fascinate people in France and around the world.

Historical Background of Joan’s Life

At that time, France was rapidly developing under a king with strong political power. However, in England, where the power of the monarchy was similarly strengthened, King Edward III asserted his royal authority over France, on the grounds that his mother was a Capetian, and the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) began. Furthermore, during the same Hundred Years’ War, Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, and Charles VII, King of Valois, fought for control of French territory.

Life in the Village of Domrémy: Joan’s Father’s has a Prophetic Dream about her.

While Joan was still a little girl, her father had a dream about her. He saw his daughter traveling with an army—a camp follower.

When he awoke, he told her brothers that if this ever happened, he would ask them to drown her, if they refused, he would do it himself (Mary Gordon, Joan of Arc: A Life).

Joan of Arc was probably born on the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6, 1412 (Joan of Arc: A Life). Her father was James (Jacques) of Arc, a peasant from the village of Domrémy in northeastern France, and he and her mother, Isabelle Romée, raised Joan as a devout Catholic. She spent most of her free time in the church. A priest who knew Joan said that she often came to confession.

It would be interesting to know if Joan was indeed born on the Feast of the Epiphany. The Feast of the Epiphany is the day when the wise men took their gifts and went to offer them to Christ the King. It seems to symbolize the life of Joan, who, under God’s guidance, left the village of Domrémi for Chinon, to meet the future king and lead him to coronation. Judging by her father’s dream, and the day of her birth, it would seem that the mysterious divine guidance concerning Joan had already begun.

Joan Guided by Mysterious Voices

In 1425, Joan was about 13 years old.

Some Burgundian and English troops drove away the livestock from the village of Domrémy, looted the church, and burned it to the ground. That same year, Joan heard mysterious voices for the first time one summer day in the garden of her house. At first Joan was afraid, but later she believed that the voices were real and that they was sent by God to guide her (SAINT JOAN OF ARC).

John 14:21 says, “He who loves Me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him, and manifest myself to him.” Because of Joan’s deep love for God, God granted her a special favor. That favor was that she would go to fight in the battle that would bring a miraculous victory to France.

The curious anecdote of Joan’s audience with the future Charles VII

In 1428, Joan requested the assistance of the local military commander, Robert de Baudricourt, to gain an audience with the Dauphin (the heir to the throne of France). She wanted to convey to the Dauphin a message that she had received from God. Part of the message was that the Dauphin was to be crowned King of France.

At first, Joan was not taken seriously, but she prophesied (correctly) that the French army would be defeated at the Battle of Louvray (the “Battle of Herrings”) on February 12, 1429, and she succeeded in gaining the trust of some high-ranking people. Finally, she was granted an audience at Chinon with the Dauphin, to accomplish the mission entrusted to her by St. Michael, St. Catherine of Alexandria, and St. Margaret of Antioch.

At the time, the Dauphin considered battle more important than coronation. One reason was that the traditional coronation site, Reims, was in hostile territory. The Dauphin, unwilling to meet Joan, hid among his courtiers in order to deceive her.

However, something unexpected happened. Joan quickly found the Dauphin in hiding. Undaunted, she told him that she did not want him to stop fighting, that the Lord would send help, that the kingdom belonged to the Lord, and that the Lord wanted the Dauphin to become the King. She then told him of her God-given mission to liberate Orléans and march on Reims, where the Dauphin would be crowned.

This anecdote of Joan’s conveyance to the Dauphin of the mission entrusted to her by God impressed upon me the strength of Joan’s faith. During this period, one of the few times a woman could speak out in public was when she was speaking about a God-given prophecy. This social context helps us understand that Joan truly believed that she was obeying the voice of God.

What does Joan have in common with the saints who appeared to her?

Here we can find similarities between Joan and the saints who appeared to her. I think that these similarities are not coincidental. For example, St. Margaret of Antioch was sometimes conflated with St. Marina, a woman who dressed as a man and entered a monastery. And she was imprisoned in a cave for a sin she did not commit. Joan, too, dressed as a man and was imprisoned. St. Michael the Archangel is often depicted fighting the devil with a sword, and Mary Gordon (in the book of Joan of Arc: A Life) mentions that Joan, though a woman, took up the sword and fought.

May 8, 1429: Battle of Orleans won in the name of God

In early April 1429, Joan, entrusted by Charles VII with the command of the army, took armor and a sword. She had a banner made depicting Jesus and Mary, and set out for Orléans, a walled city 74 miles southwest of Paris.

At this time, Duke Dunoy, the military commander of Orléans, gave advice to Joan, who had no combat experience. In reply, she told him that the Lord’s advice was safer and wiser than his, and that through the intercession of St. Louis and St. Charlemagne, the Lord would deliver Orléans from misery and oppression.

Joan also persuaded the other captains of the army to follow the Lord’s advice and attack Fort Tourel, where they won a great victory, though Joan was wounded. It is recorded that she actually knew in advance that she would be wounded in this battle, but she did not hesitate to go to the battlefield.

Joan foresaw that the bridge would fall.

“Courage! Do not fall back; in a little, the place will be yours. Watch! When the wind blows my banner against the bulwark, you shall take it!” That is what Joan said to the soldiers fighting with her in the assault on the bridge at Orléans. (In her own words | Joan of Arc |

During the attack on the bridge, she foresaw that the temporary wooden bridge that had been built over a gap in the broken stone bridge would not last long. When the English troops were about to cross the bridge, she warned them to stop. However, the English misunderstood her advice and thought that Joan and her men were afraid of them. They continued to advance, and the wooden bridge collapsed under their weight, causing them to drown in their heavy armor. Needless to say, this unfortunate event for the English gave the French the upper hand. (The battle is explained in detail in this video.)

Finally, the French succeeded in recapturing Orléans. This victory marked a turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. Since then, she has come to be known as “the Maid of Orléans.”

Joan’s Beloved Banner

Rather than engaging in violence, it seems that Joan carried a banner on the battlefield, to inspire her soldiers. Banners were also important for rallying allied soldiers in the chaos of battle.

At the trial in 1431, Joan described her banner as follows:

“I had a banner, which I carried in the field, a standard whose field was sown with lilies. There was a figure of Christ holding the world and on each side of Him was an angel. It was made of a white fabric called “boucassin”. Written above: Jhesus Maria, as it seems to me, and it was fringed in silk” (Banner | Joan of Arc |

It is reported that Joan was more fond of the banner with Jesus and Mary than of the sword. Unfortunately, this banner was destroyed by fire during the French Revolution.

St. Joan of Arc’s Ardent Faith in God.

10 Fear not, for I am with you,

be not dismayed, for I am your God;

I will strengthen you, I will help you,

I will uphold you with my victorious right hand.

11 Behold, all who are incensed against you

shall be put to shame and confounded;

those who strive against you

shall be as nothing and shall perish.

12 You shall seek those who contend with you,

but you shall not find them;

those who war against you

shall be as nothing at all.

— Isaiah 41:10-12      

According to “Joan of Arc: A Life” by Mary Gordon, people who met Joan felt transformed, able to do things they could not do before. Her strong faith, fiery enthusiasm, and immense trust in God inspired those around her and freed them from fear.

Her accomplishments, brought about by God, are like the description in Isaiah. In the 15th century, a peasant girl did not have much opportunity to make an impact on history, but with God’s help, human limitations can be overcome.

Because she followed God’s calling, Joan ultimately achieved the triumph of divine glory. The people who betrayed her and sent her to her executioner perished, but Joan became Saint Joan, and she continues to inspire people today.

The Battle of Patay, 18 June, 1429: Another Miraculous Victory

After her success in the battle of Orléans, Joan immediately reported the victory to the Dauphin. She then urged the Dauphin to be crowned as soon as possible. But in order to reach Reims, the traditional site for coronations, it was necessary to defeat the English army at Patay. Again, Joan promised a great victory for the French. And true to her word, the battle of Patay ended with an overwhelming French victory. On the other hand, Joan was shocked to see the reality of this tragic war. The story of Joan holding the head of a dying English soldier on the battlefield and listening to his dying confession is passed down to posterity as an anecdote that demonstrates this fact.

Fortune at the Battle of Patay

The event that led to victory in the battle was actually the sudden flight of a deer from the forest. The English soldiers raised their voices, and the French, who had now learned their location, launched a surprise attack and were able to repel the longbowmen.

The longbowmen, who were the strength of the English army at the time, had inflicted tremendous damage on the French army. At the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, which must have been still fresh in Joan’s mind, the French army, which was far superior in numbers and equipment, was helplessly defeated by the resourceful strategy of Henry V and the heavy fire of the English longbowmen.

At the Battle of Agincourt, Henry V, who hid his men in the woods, ordered his troops to “make no noise under any circumstances.” If the English had not raised their voices at the Battle of Patay, the British would have had a good chance of success. Knowing the strength of the English army at that time, we can believe that without God’s help, it would have been difficult for the French to win the battle.

On the other hand, while the battle of Orleans was full of mysterious events that can only be attributed to divine intervention, the battle of Patay was not like that.

To what extent was the Victory at Patay due to divine intervention in response to the prayers of St. Joan, to what extent to the strategy and military might of the French army, and to what extent to mere chance? All three played a role, but only God can measure with exactness the contribution of each.

The campaign of Joan and her men in the Loire Valley:
They captured Jargeau on the 10th of June, re-entered Orléans on the 13th, captured the bridge at Meung on the 15th, and took Beaugency on the 16th. It ended with a glorious victory at Patay.

Image: The Maid by Frank Craig

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Happy Pentecost!

Pentecost, the celebration of the Holy Spirit, has begun. The Holy Spirit is symbolized by wind, fire, and doves. At Pentecost, we pray that the Holy Spirit, will bring us blessings.

I learned from a priest’s sermon that in medieval Europe, people spent the week of Pentecost relaxing and celebrating the Holy Spirit. Even today, in many Catholic countries, the day after Pentecost (Whit Monday) is a national holiday. This year, by coincidence, the day after Pentecost is Memorial Day in the United States, so Whit Monday will be a holiday here as well.

The Beginning of the Church and the Tongues of the Holy Spirit

Pentecost is the day when the Church began, in the year A.D. 33. It is the day when the Holy Spirit bestowed his grace upon the assembled Apostles, and gave birth to the only Church recognized by God. In other words, it is the birthday of the Catholic Church.

Factus est repente (Gregorian Chant) (Chorał gregoriański)

“When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly a sound came from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared to them tongues as of fire, distributed and resting on each one of them. And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance” (Acts 2:1–4).

The grace of the Holy Spirit, symbolized by the tongues of fire, enabled them to speak and understand foreign languages in an instant. The languages miraculously spoken by the Apostles were understood by the native speakers of those languages, who were present when the miracle occurred.

After the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, the custom of speaking in tongues (or “glossolalia” in Greek) continued in some places in the early Church. Saint Paul discusses the topic in I Corinthians 14.

What exactly the phenomenon of glossolalia in the early Church consisted of cannot now be known with certainty. Some believe that the languages spoken in such cases were completely unintelligible except to God and the angels; others think that the speakers in tongues spoke in foreign languages that they had not learned, but which others who heard them could recognize. Perhaps it was sometimes one and sometimes the other.

Seven gifts of the Holy Spirt

According to tradition, there are seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, taken from Isaiah 11:1–3, which reads (in the Douay-Rheims version):

“And there shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root. And the spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him: the spirit of wisdom, and of understanding, the spirit of counsel, and of fortitude, the spirit of knowledge, and of godliness. And he shall be filled with the spirit of the fear of the Lord.”

So, the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit are:

1. Wisdom

2. Understanding

3. Counsel

4. Fortitude

5. Knowledge

6. Piety

7. Fear of the Lord

Jesse is King David’s father, and all the kings of the Jews were his descendants, including Jesus Christ, the final King of the Jews. “Upon whom the Spirit of the Lord will remain,” means that a descendant of Jesse will receive the blessings of the Holy Spirit.

This prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled at the baptism of Jesus (Matthew 3:16), when Jesus “saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him.”

The Holy Spirit and Red Rose Petals

Climbing the Pantheon’s Dome on Pentecost – EWTN Vaticano

It is a traditional custom on Pentecost to scatter rose petals from the ceiling of the church at Mass, during the singing of the “Veni Sancte Spiritus” between the Epistle and the Gospel. It is not known when this method of celebrating with rose petals began, but it is symbolic of the “tongues of fire” mentioned in the Bible.

The history and dignity of the Church of Sancta Maria ad Martyres (i.e., the Pantheon in Rome) make it a place of graceful masses. At Sancta Maria ad Martyres, people still scatter rose petals from the ceiling every year on the day of Pentecost, because the rose petals are the symbolic color of the Pentecost. The red rose petals falling from the sky are indescribably beautiful. At least once in my life, I would like to attend Mass at Sancta Maria ad Martyres on the Day of Pentecost.

Peace and Freedom Brought by the Holy Spirit: St. Josemaria Escriva

As explained in this article (The secret to spiritual freedom and peace, according to St. Josemaria Escriva –Aleteia), St. Josemaria Escriva, the founder of Opus Dei, taught that we can experience peace and freedom only when we deny ourselves for the love of God and separate ourselves from all selfishness and false security. He says that this experience is a benefit that Christ has won for us and that is given to us by the Holy Spirit.

The author of the article goes on to say, “The next time you sit down to pray, consider what it is that holds you back from this spiritual freedom, and what things need to be ‘denied’ in order to find the peace you long for.”

These are painful words for me to hear. I find that (when I look back on my life) my will, words, and deeds are often not in accordance with God’s will. I find it especially difficult to abandon ‘self.’

The Holy Spirit Blowing where it wills.

“The wind blows where it wills, and you hear the sound of it, but you do not know whence it comes or whither it goes; so it is with every one who is born of the Spirit” (John 3:8).

Whenever I read this verse, I always imagine the wondrous freedom the Holy Spirit gives us. I get the impression that if we are freed from worldly attachments by the grace of the Holy Spirit and are able to live in spiritual freedom, there will be a refreshing feeling like a breeze blowing through the air.

I would like to pray for the grace of the Holy Spirit, so that I can live as a free spirit, free from attachment to worldliness.

May the Week of the Holy Spirit be full of grace.

image: The dove of the Holy Spirit stained glass by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1660 in the apse inside St. Peter s basilica in Rome

Benedict’s Anniversary, Without Benedict (1)

On April 19, 2023, New Liturgical Movement published the following (in an article written by Gregory DiPippo) in memory of former Pope Benedict XVI:

“Today is the first time that we mark the anniversary of Benedict XVI’s election to the Papacy in 2005 without having him among us in this world: a good day to offer a prayer for his eternal repose.

Deus, qui inter summos sacerdótes fámulum tuum Benedictum ineffábili tua dispositióne connumerári voluisti: praesta, quáesumus; ut, qui Unigéniti Filii tui vices in terris gerébat, sanctórum tuórum Pontíficum consortio perpétuo aggregétur. Per eundem Christum, Dóminum nostrum. Amen.

God, Who in Thy ineffable providence, did will that Thy servant Benedict should be numbered among the high priests, grant, we beseech Thee, that he, who on earth held the place of Thine Only-begotten Son, may be joined forevermore to the fellowship of Thy holy pontiffs. Through the same Christ, Our Lord. Amen.”

The Resignation of Benedict XVI

Benedict XVI, who resigned from the Papacy on February 28, 2013, remained in the Vatican as Pope Emeritus, and passed to his eternal reward on December 31, 2022, at the age of 95. Therefore, this year will mark the first time since Benedict XVI became Pope that he will be absent from the Vatican.

Even after Benedict XVI’s unexpected resignation, it was thought by conservatives and traditionalists that Benedict XVI might still, in fact, be the Pope.

Benedict XVI: popular among traditionalists and conservatives.

Benedict XVI was one of the longest-lived popes in history. He was multilingual, able to read not only ecclesiastical Latin but also ancient Greek and classical Hebrew. Perhaps Benedict XVI’s mastery of Latin helped him to appreciate the importance of the traditional Latin Mass, which he safeguarded and encouraged with his Motu Proprio Summorum Pontificum. He also left us many valuable books.

Benedict XVI’s sudden departure from office sent tremors through the Catholic Church and the faithful. It is no wonder that the unprepared faithful did not want him to step down. So, did some people want to believe that Benedict XVI was still Pope after the abdication drama, simply for sentimental reasons? Actually, the reasons are not so simple.

To an outsider unfamiliar with Catholicism, there would appear to be no doubt that Cardinal Bergoglio (Francis) is the current Pope. It would be hard for such an outsider to see how conservatives and traditionalists could arrive at any other conclusion. However, to one familiar with the details of Benedict XVI’s abdication, as well as the background behind it and the events surrounding it, things are not so simple. From the point of view of Catholic doctrine, canon law, and precedent, the precise meaning of Benedict XVI’s status as ” Pope Emeritus” is not at all clear.

Why did Benedict XVI step down?

First, the reasons for the Pope’s abrupt departure.
There are a number of factors that cannot be ignored that make one wonder if there was a reason for Benedict XVI’s abdication that could not be made public. On the other hand, it can be said that none of the various speculations about the reasons for the Pope’s departure are anything more than speculation.

Benedict XVI’s Retirement Announced on the Day of the Founding of Vatican City State

First, the official public announcement of Benedict XVI’s resignation was made on February 11. The statement reads (in part), “Due to my advanced age, I have come to believe that my strength is no longer adequate for the full exercise of the Papacy.”

February 11 was the date of the Lateran Treaty of 1929, by which the Vatican was recognized as an independent state. In other words, it is the day on which the Vatican City State was founded, with the Pope as its absolute monarch. Is it a coincidence that Benedict XVI announced his stepping down (or his forcible removal?) on such an important day?

I do not think it is a coincidence. It seems as if the Pope was signaling that his (theoretical) power as absolute monarch of the Vatican City State had been overthrown. If so, then who was really in charge? Could it have been someone involved in the Vatican banking scandal? If such was the case, it was the day that someone (or some group) involved in the Vatican banking scandal seized control of Vatican City and its king, the Pope.

The Vatican Bank Scandal and Benedict XVI

Power and corruption are inextricably linked, and the Vatican is no exception. Benedict XVI was the first pope to attempt to reform the Vatican Bank, which is rumored to have ties to criminal organizations. The Vatican Bank has been the subject of many dark rumors, including various theories about the mysterious death of Pope John Paul I, the Mafia, and the Freemasons. It is therefore believed by many that Benedict XVI’s reforms were stalled by people and organizations that were unfriendly to his intentions.

In addition, none of the allegations of money laundering, ties to criminal organizations, unaccounted money, etc. that should have been investigated in the Vatican bank scandal have been properly investigated; or, if they have been investigated, the results have never been revealed. The following is a summary of the complex and difficult-to-understand case, summarized from an article in the Financial Times on December 6, 2013.

Stop doing business with the Vatican Bank

It all started when, in the wake of the Euro crisis, the EU banking investigative body decided to investigate Deutsche Bank, JP Morgan (also in Germany), and UniCredit Bank (in Italy), all of which had business with the Vatican.

Upon learning of the investigation, the European banks under investigation reportedly warned the Vatican Bank that they might find themselves no longer able to do business with it. Soon after, UniCredit Bank, which was suspected of money laundering, became the first major institution to stop doing business with the Vatican Bank.

European investigators suspected that there was corruption in the Vatican Bank, but they could not investigate it directly, because the Vatican City is an independent state, and not a member of the E.U. So, investigators began to put pressure on several EU banks that do business with the Vatican.

Action taken by Benedict XVI

To remedy the situation, in 2009 Benedict XVI appointed a new head of the Vatican Bank, the Italian Ettore Gotti Tedeschi. He also invited MoneyVal (an organization that investigates allegations of money laundering) to investigate the Vatican Bank.

Although Tedeschi was well-liked by the Italian banking community, he did not get along well with many of the Cardinals. In May 2012, the directors of the Vatican Bank expelled him and accused him of money laundering. The Italian government subsequently investigated Mr. Tedeschi but did not charge him with any crime.
In March 2012, Germany’s JP Morgan withdrew from doing business with the Vatican.
MoneyVal’s investigation found that the Vatican Bank had a rating of 9 out of 16.

Vatican ATM Suspension and Sudden Resignation of Benedict XVI

Then, on January 1, 2013, the Vatican ATMs shut down. This happened because the Bank of Italy put pressure on Deutsche Bank, which held the right to operate the Vatican ATMs. The Bank of Italy sent a letter to Deutsche Bank, saying that the Vatican Bank was not compliant with international law, and questioning whether Deutsche Bank, by cooperating with the Vatican Bank, was engaging in illegal activity. Alarmed by this crisis, Deutsche Bank decided to suspend the operation of Vatican ATMs.

To resolve the problem, Benedict XVI appointed a German, Ernst von Freyberg, as the new head of the bank and a Swiss, Rene Bruelhart, as the Vatican Finance Regulator. Mr. Bruelhart then asked the Aduno Group, a Swiss bank unaffiliated with the EU, to operate the ATMs. Then, On February 11, Benedict XVI abruptly announced his resignation. The next day, February 12, the contract with the Aduno Group was finalized, and the ATMs began functioning again.

Swiss banks are known for their extremely high level of secrecy. To this day, Aduno holds the right to operate the Vatican ATMs, keeping them out of the reach of the EU. In addition, a Frenchman, Jean-Baptiste de Franssu, was appointed by Pope Francis on July 9, 2014, as the head of the Vatican’s bank, a position he holds to this day.

Benedict XVI decides to step down after a mystical experience?

According to an article in the Guardian dated August 21, 2013, Benedict XVI decided to step down after a mystical experience, after which he decided to devote his life to prayer. According to the Guardian, the news was reported by the news agency Zenit. Zenit, which was said to be the source of the information, temporarily ceased operations in December 2020. It now appears to be back in business, but I was unable to find the article attributed to that source.

On the other hand, CNA (Catholic News Agency), in an August 27, 2013 article, denies that Benedict XVI stepped down due to a mystical experience. In the article, Benedict’s personal secretary, Archbishop Georg Gänswein, is quoted as saying that the story was “fabricated from alpha to omega.”

Compared to Archbishop Gänswein and CNA, an anonymous source and a missing Zenit article have little credibility. The story of Benedict XVI’s “mystical experience” is probably nothing more than a myth.

image of Benedict XVI from Turn back to God

The Risen Lord Jesus Christ: Savior of Souls (2)

Today, the place said to be the tomb of the resurrected Christ may be found in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem. How did this church come to be?

The tomb of Christ where St. Helena made a pilgrimage.

The story goes that Helena, the mother of Emperor Constantine (Reign 25 July 306 – 22 May 337), went on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and asked the inhabitants of Jerusalem where Christ’s tomb was. They led her to a certain Roman temple of Venus, beneath which, according to a tradition that had been handed down through the centuries, lay the spot where Jesus had been buried. Because it was a pagan temple, neither the Christian nor Jewish inhabitants would enter it. Before the conversion of Emperor Constantine, Roman emperors were pagans, not Christians. It is likely that the Romans built a pagan temple over the tomb of Christ in order to prevent Christians from worshipping there. Hearing of this fact, Emperor Constantine ordered the pagan temple to be destroyed. Afterward, he caused a magnificent church to be built on the spot. A legend adds that Helena also found the remains of our Lord’s cross at that time.

Eusebius, the fourth-century church historian, wrote that Helena went on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, and built churches at the places of Christ’s birth, his ascension, and his resurrection. Other than that, we cannot be sure what really happened. However, to this day, pilgrims from all over the world visit the Church of the Holy Sepulcher to venerate what they believe to be the tomb of Jesus, the place where he rose again from the dead.

Mary Magdalene, the first to see the resurrected Jesus

Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalene, ‘Noli me tangere’

Mary Magdalene was the first person to see the resurrected Jesus. Her encounter with the empty tomb and the risen Lord is described in the Gospel of John, chapter 20, vv. 1–18.

At the Easter Mass I attended, a priest spoke about faith, using the analogy of “Doubting” Thomas and Mary Magdalene. When the risen Jesus spoke to Mary, without hesitation she answered, “Rabboni” (Teacher). Thomas made it clear that he would not believe until he laid his hands on Jesus’ scars. The priest said that for modern people, Thomas’s reaction was easier to understand than Mary Magdalene’s.

I have always been impressed by the faith of Mary Magdalene. Although she did not even touch the risen Jesus, she had no doubt at all that he had bodily risen, and she immediately went to announce his resurrection to the rest of the disciples, as she had been told to do. I find myself tempted to want to know the scientific evidence for the resurrection, even though I know the Biblical story.

As I listened to the priest say, “Blessed are those who believe without seeing” (John 20: 29), I realized once again that I had been paying attention only to what I could see, in other words, the things of this world. I feel that I should pray more earnestly that I may become the kind of person who can believe in the unseen God, not only in the things that can be seen.

Easter Baptism

In my church, seven people were baptized on Easter. They ranged in age from young to old. They looked so happy and bright and shining. I think that Easter, symbolically, fits perfectly with baptism, and their baptism will be for them a memory that will last a lifetime.

When I was baptized, I felt as happy as they did. I felt as if I had been born anew, because my mind and body became lighter. Not only that, but the chronic feeling of depression and disappointment in life that I had been feeling was gone.

I don’t know the real reason, but think that before baptism, my soul was spiritually dead. I believe that through my baptism, I was brought back to life by the life of Christ. Even now, I sometimes feel depressed, but the feeling of total darkness in my heart that I used to feel has completely disappeared. I can be sad and yet still feel at peace with myself.

Regarding miracles, Rev. W. Wilmers, S.J., in his Handbook of the Christian Religion (Benzinger, 1891), writes as follows (p. 18): “If God can work miracles; if, as the Lord of the universe, He wishes to speak to us through miracles, He can also so dispose circumstances, and so influence our mind, that in many cases we may know with certainty that a miracle has taken place.” For me, the “resurrection” of my soul after baptism was that kind of miracle.

Image: Christ`s tomb, in the Old City of Jerusalem, Israel

The Risen Lord Jesus Christ: Did Jesus die on the cross? (1)

Best Wishes for a Joyful Feast of the Resurrection of our Lord!

After Lent comes the most important feast day of all for Christians: Easter.
The liturgies of the Sacred Triduum and Easter celebrate the crucifixion, death, and resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The Resurrection: a Divine Mystery

All liturgies are important, but Easter is special among them for Christians. We believe in the salvation of souls through the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ. I knew very little about Easter until I began studying Christianity in preparation for my baptism. Probably, for most non-Christians (such as I once was), it is just a day of Easter eggs and the Easter Bunny. Common sense tells us that the resurrection of a dead person ought to be simply impossible. How can anyone be expected to believe such a thing?

Well, if we believe that Jesus Christ is God, and that God is omnipotent, it follows that our Lord Jesus can perform any miracle he wants to, including the miracle of bringing himself back to life after having died. And the Church teaches that that is exactly what he did. For those of sufficient faith, that answer is enough. I suspect, however, that for most people, faith needs a little help from circumstantial evidence.

I, too, used to be skeptical with regard to the resurrection. I thought that perhaps Jesus was in a state of suspended animation—a kind of swoon, or coma—when He was taken down from the cross, and that He recovered from his “swoon” in the sepulcher. However, I found out that this was almost impossible. The Roman soldiers of the time were well versed in how to execute criminals. It would have taken a miracle to survive a Roman crucifixion.

The Fate of Spartacus and his 6,000 Companions

So, what exactly was the punishment of crucifixion? Crucifixion was a method of execution intended especially for the lower classes and slaves who tried to rebel against the Roman government. It was not used on Roman citizens.

One well-known crucifixion figure is the story of Spartacus and his 6,000 companions.

Between 73 and 71 B.C., the gladiator Spartacus led a slave revolt (gladiators were members of the slave class in Roman society). However, the rebel slaves were defeated by the Roman army. The Roman soldiers made a long line of crosses along the road connecting Rome and Capua, and crucified Spartacus and 6,000 of his companions on these crosses.

Crucifixion was chosen because it was torture and execution combined in one simple device. Also, the simplicity of the method made it convenient for executing a large number of criminals at once.

Since the Romans had already successfully crucified Spartacus and 6,000 of his companions, it would have been a simple task to execute Jesus and two other criminals. No record of a criminal surviving a Roman execution has ever been found. The most likely reason is that no one survived.

Was it Possible to Survive a Crucifixion?

During a Roman Crucifixion, there was always a soldier on guard at the cross until the criminal was dead. It generally took about two or three days for the criminal to die. If the Romans were in a hurry, and the criminal did not die quickly enough, an iron club was sometimes used to break his legs, so that his body would lose support and he would die quickly from suffocation.

Also, to make him an example, the criminal was crucified in full view of the passersby and of the people. It is said that sometimes, as the criminals were hanging helplessly on their crosses, vultures and crows would fly down and peck at their eyeballs.

Roman law stated clearly that if the criminal survived or escaped, the soldier on guard was to be crucified in the criminal’s place. This ensured that the soldier did not fail in his duty.

In the case of Jesus, he died only three hours after being nailed to the cross. That was a shorter time than usual, so the soldier on guard had to make sure that Jesus was actually dead. To that end, he drove a spear through Jesus’ side and into his heart. Even if Jesus had survived the massive blood loss from his scourging, the crown of thorns, and the nail wounds, a spear through the heart would surely have killed him. John was standing by the cross, and watched the whole thing. John’s Gospel describes what was undoubtedly a piercing of the heart.

The Heart of Jesus Pierced by a Spear

Here is how St. John describes the piercing of our Lord’s side:

“But one of the soldiers pierced [Jesus’] side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. He who saw it has borne witness” (John 19:34–35).

My question here is, what was the “water” that John saw? According to a joint paper by William D. Edwards, MD; Wesley J. Gabel, MDiv; Floyd E. Hosmer, MS, AM, the water that flowed from Jesus’ body was probably serous pleural fluid and pericardial fluid. The paper is published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

However, this theory would be true only if Jesus had been impaled from the right side. The Gospel says nothing about whether Jesus was pierced on the right side or on the left side. What is interesting, however, is that the man whose image is on the Shroud of Turin, thought to be Jesus, was pierced on the right side.

Is this a coincidence? There is more than one curious fact about this cloth. The Shroud of Turin has many mysterious characteristics that cannot be explained scientifically.

At any rate, given the thoroughness of Roman executions, it is impossible to believe that the Roman soldiers could have failed to execute our Lord. The idea that Jesus, after having been tortured and crucified by the Romans, was not dead, but only swooning, does not stand up to scrutiny.

There are also other theories designed to explain away the Resurrection, such as that what the Apostles saw on Easter was not a resurrected body, but rather a hallucination or a ghost, or that the Apostles simply invented the story of the Resurrection, and perpetrated a massive fraud. I have examined these theories as well; I do not have time to explain all the results of my research in this post, but suffice it to say: all of the other rationalizing theories also do not stand up to scrutiny.

The more one knows, the more difficult it seems to be to doubt the resurrection of our Lord Jesus.

Image: Two sheep by fsHH

Continued in part two.